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Title Computerized bibliographic services for biomedicine
Author(s) Leonard Karel; Charles J. Austin; Martin M. Cummings
Source Science, Vol. 148, Pages 766-772
Publication Date May 7, 1965
Abstract This article gives historical background on the development of MEDLARS. Design was completed in 1962 and the system became operational in January 1964. Journals were scanned by professional analysts who prepared index records on (handwritten?) data sheets. The sheets were then keypunched on Flexowriters to produce paper tapes which were processed in batch mode and the records were merged onto magnetic tape. Printed copies were prepared with the aid of a computer-operated phototypesetting system called GRACE which output onto film at 300 characters per second.

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